The Kyoto Protocol was adopted as a first complement to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international treaty that committed its signatories to develop national programmes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (PFC), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) influence the energy balance of the world`s atmosphere in a way that should lead to an overall increase in the average temperature of the planet known as global warming (see also the greenhouse effect). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change established in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization, the long-term effects of global warming would include a general rise in sea level around the world, resulting in the flooding of deep coastal areas and the eventual disappearance of some island states; melting glaciers, sea ice and arctic permafrost; an increase in the number of extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts, and changes in their distribution; and an increased risk of extinction for 20-30% of all plant and animal species. The Kyoto Protocol imposed binding emission reduction targets on most UNFCCC signatories through Schedule I (including members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and several countries with “transformational economies”), binding emission reduction targets that vary according to the particular circumstances of each country. Other signatories to the UNFCCC and the protocol, composed mainly of developing countries, were not required to limit their emissions. The protocol came into force in February 2005, 90 days after its ratification by at least 55 Annex I signatories who together accounted for at least 55% of total carbon dioxide emissions in 1990. In 2001, the last meeting (COP6 bis) continued in Bonn  at which the necessary decisions were taken. After some concessions, proponents of the protocol (under the leadership of the European Union) managed to secure the agreement of Japan and Russia by allowing for increased use of carbon sinks. COP7 took place in Marrakech from 29 October 2001 to 9 November 2001 to define the final terms of the protocol. When ipcc reports indicated that the stabilization objective would not be sufficient to prevent a dangerous anthropogenic attack in the climate system, the FCCC parties (governments) decided to make emission reduction commitments for developed countries in the form of a legal protocol, despite the problems they had already encountered in stabilizing their emissions (for example. B, Oberthur ott, 1999).
Such a protocol at the FCCC was adopted in 1997 in Kyoto (Japan) and is therefore called the Kyoto Protocol. If this protocol is ratified, industrialized countries will reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by at least 5% from 1990 levels during the 2008-2012 commitment period (Article 3.1). The natural, technical and social sciences can provide information on decisions made regarding this objective, including the possible magnitude and rate of future climate change.  However, the IPCC also concluded that the decision on what constitutes “dangerous” interference will require value judgments that will vary from region to region of the world.  Factors that may influence this decision include the local effects of the effects of climate change, the ability of a given region to adapt to climate change (adaptive capacity) and a region`s ability to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions (mitigative capacity).  In order to bridge the gap between the end of the first Kyoto period in 2012 and the launch of the new global agreement in 2020, an amendment to the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Doha climate change conference in December 2012.