ILO Convention No. 161, adopted in 1985, created an important standard for occupational health services. Although its scope encompasses both developing and developed countries, its basic concepts are based on existing programmes and experiences in industrialized countries. (2) List of all health and safety standards (wastewater discharges, air emission rates for all air pollutants, detailed description and rate of occurrence of solid waste or other waste to be disposed of onshore or by incineration) The importance of comprehensive training is illustrated by an accident at a North American steel mill in 1986. Two workers entered an oven container to remove scaffolding with which the ship had been shrunk with new fire-cancelling bricks. The workers followed a detailed analysis of occupational safety, which outlined each step of the company. However, the occupational safety analysis was flawed. Two years earlier, the ship had been equipped with a system for blowing argon gas by molten metal in order to stir it more efficiently, and the occupational safety analysis had never been updated to account for the new argon system. The University of California, Johns Hopkins University and the University of Massachusetts have recently studied the health of American semiconductor workers. Studies show that women are significantly more at risk of miscarriages when working in semiconductor plants. The researchers participating in these studies note that companies are laying off workers and closing factories so quickly that these studies will likely be the last of sufficient size to give reliability to the results to be achieved with American workers. Accidents at work have decreased in many industrialized countries, mainly due to advances in occupational safety measures and the widespread introduction of automated processes and equipment. The reduction in the absolute number of workers performing more dangerous work due to the change in the industrial structure from heavy to light industry is also an important factor in this decrease.
The number of workers killed in industrial accidents in Japan rose from 3,725 in 1975 to 2,348 in 1995. However, analysis of the temporal trend shows that the rate of decline has slowed down over the past decade. The incidence of industrial accidents in Japan (including fatal cases) increased from 4.77 per million hours of work in 1975 to 1.88 in 1995; The decline was slightly slower between 1989 and 1995. This soil formation of the trend towards the reduction of accidents at work is also observed in some other industrialized countries; For example, the frequency of workplace accidents in the United States has not improved in more than 40 years. This partly reflects the replacement of conventional accidents at work, which can be avoided by various safety measures, by the new types of accidents caused by the introduction of automated machines in these countries. 7. Occupational hygiene, which measures, assesses and controls risks to the environment, is an essential element of occupational health care. . .